Definition:- Gallstones are made from cholesterol and other things found in the bile. They can be smaller than a grain of sand or as large as a golf ball  and may result in cholangitis, obstructive jaundice, and pancreatitis. 

Eitiology/Causes:


  • In most cases, cholelithiasis is caused by excessive amounts of cholesterol in the bile that is stored in the gallbladder. 
  • The cholesterol hardens to form stone-like substances. Increased body weight and older age are associated with increased levels of cholesterol in the bile. Thus, gallstones are more likely to occur in women, in people who are obese, and in older individuals.
  • Some gallstones develop because the bile contains too much bilirubin, a waste product of the liver that is a component of bile. Gallstones  that develop from excess bilirubin are called pigment stones.

Risk Factors:
  1. Females are more prone to gall stones.
  2. Obesity or quick weight loss.
  3. Crash diet 
  4. Family history
  5. Diabetes
  6. Age over 40 years
  7. Pregnancy (decreases the gallbladder’s ability to empty bile)
  8. Liver Diseases
  9. Use of certain medications( cholesterol lowering medicines increases cholesterol in bile)
Signs & Symptoms:-
  1. mild pain in the pit of stomach  or in the upper right part of belly. 
  2. Pain may spread to right upper back or shoulder blade area. 
  3. Abdominal swelling, distension or bloating
  4. Sometimes the pain is more severe. It may be steady, or it may come and go. Or it may get worse when you eat.
  5. When gallstones keep blocking a bile duct there may have pain with fever and chills.
  6. Skin or white of eyes may turn yellow.
  7. Clay-colored stools
  8. Loss of appetite
  9. Nausea with or without vomiting
Diagnosis:

  •   ultra sonography
  •  CT
  • MRI



Treatment:-

  1. Medications are available to dissolve the stones in case if patient can't undergo surgery.
  2. Choleycystectomy i.e removal of gall bladder. Once gall bladder is removed bile flows directly from liver to small intestine
  3. Homoeopathic medicines have excellent results for all kind of stones if the case is taken on symptom similarity.  

Viber arrives on PCs - both Windows & OS X.
Viber arrives on the Desktop – both Windows & OS X.
Viber broke away from what most competitors have done out there by creating a desktop client for its messaging and voice call app. Viber was originally a simple communications app launched on iOS and later Android. It differentiated itself from Whatsapp by providing the ability to make calls over the internet via WIFI or a cellular data connection. In Asia, Whatsapp took the lead in popularity because it reached the market first. Whatsapp is not the best messaging app out there but its first-to-market move gave it the critical user base that self propagated even more members. There are many apps in this space, WeChat and Line are two other popular ones but none of them have truly offered cross compatibility beyond mobile devices – until now.

Viber’s move in providing a desktop client changes the classification of this app.


Viber’s move in providing a desktop client changes the classification of this app. Whatsapp, WeChat and Line are no longer its competitors. Viber is now up against Skype and iMessage. In terms of cross compatibility, I will have to objectively remove iMessage from this because you cannot access iMessage from non Apple devices. Viber and Skype on the other hand, run on any operating system (including OS X) and any device. The point of comparison here will be Viber vs. Skype.


Viber on the Desktop
The desktop client works exactly the way you expect it to. It’s a lightweight programme that stays resident on the system tray when running. Opening it gives you four tabs – Conversations, Contacts, Recents and Dailer. The tabs are pretty self explanatory.
Messaging works perfectly. Text and photos are transmitted to all your devices instantaneously. You can zoom in and save photos or even post them to Facebook.
Messaging on Viber's Desktop Client
Messaging on Viber’s Desktop Client
The only downside of the messaging portion is that emoticons and stickers sent from Android / iOS apps are not viewable as yet. This should be brought into the desktop client within the next release as it is not very difficult to implement.
Making calls on the desktop client is straightforward. You can do it via the dialer or by clicking ‘Call’ after right clicking a contact’s name. Call quality was crisp and clear on Wifi and 4G. Some stuttering occurred on 3G but it was no worse (or better) than Skype. A good solid 3G connection will suffice but that is hard to come by in Nepal especially if you are moving between cell towers quickly.
Making a call is easy and quality is great on WIFI and 4G.
Making a call is easy and quality is great on WIFI and 4G.
You can transfer calls between your devices if you have to switch from one to another. I tested this by making a call from the desktop client and then using the switch button (next to the hang up button) to transfer the call to my Iphone. The handover was smooth and I was able to resume my call without disruption.
Similar to Skype, you can continue messaging while making a voice or video call. I did not test the video call feature as it is still in its beta stage. Things would change quickly on this end and reviewing it will be of little value at this point.

The desktop client is the feature that brought me back to using Viber and a large part of it is due to its perfect execution.


The Viber desktop client is polished and clean looking. It offers lesser features than its Skype counterpart as it is unable to make calls to landlines or have a paid subscription option. However, it outdoes Skype in other areas such as delivering a better user interface and experience with minimal fuss. The desktop client is the feature that brought me back to using Viber and a large part of it is due to its perfect execution.


Viber on Android
The Android app remains largely unchanged besides having its UI completely redone to fit Google’s Holo theme. Similar to what Whatsapp had done earlier, the UI has been reskinned and looks more Android like as compared to the earlier version which was essentially a visual iOS port.
Stickers and emoticons on the Android client.
Stickers and emoticons on the Android client.
You can send video messages which is a nice touch but one that I rarely used. There are also emoticons and stickers. I was hoping that Viber would adopt the Emoji standard but it currently sports its own. The selection of stickers and emoticons is not extensive but there is more than enough for self expression.
Messaging and calling remain as they are. They work as intended without any extra things to note. Overall, the app feels a little less optimized as compared to Whatsapp. It takes a little longer to load and seems to be pinging the server more often than required. These are small concerns as a week’s heavy usage showed no real difference in battery consumption. However, when compared to Skype (which is its actual competitor here – Whatsapp has no call function, etc), Viber again emerges as the better optimized client. Skype gobbles up too many resources and insists on an always on connection on Android.
Skype has much to learn from Viber about building a good app both on Android and on the Desktop.


Conclusion
Viber is in a good place for those who want to be able to send messages and make calls on both their mobile devices and traditional computers. It treads a fine line between apps with a smaller feature set like Whatsapp and giants like Skype. If you are a user like me that spends a fair amount of time on the desktop, the desktop client is a tremendous advantage and makes messaging unified.

The challenge for Viber is to reach a critical mass of users, something that Skype and Whatsapp have done.


I hope competitors like Skype learn from this to keep their apps on all platforms lean with a clean, minimally designed user interface. Other smaller competitors like Whatsapp should rethink their decisions on desktop clients as this opens up the user base to a much wider audience.
The challenge for Viber is to reach a critical mass of users, something that Skype and Whatsapp have done. The moment it is able to do that, Viber will be the client that has got the balance right in making your conversations a lot more convenient.
I have been pretty eager to take to the cloud and most of my often used documents are stored within DropBox. I am sure this is a model that most people have taken as well. DropBox is the first cloud storage service that end users took to really quickly. Google Drive was launched a few months back and SkyDrive has always been there but untouched. Now with Office 2013 and Windows 8 making a Microsoft (and thus SkyDrive) account neccessary, I had to dip my toes in and give it a spin. I will not be talking about iCloud here because it is so locked down and feature short that it won’t compare to these 3 at all.

DropBox 
DropBox - Reigning King
DropBox – Reigning King
There’s nothing much to say about this service. Its a benchmark for a good reason. Here’s what I like about it:
Free Space
DropBox is smart, it gives in to the perceptive need of users. Everyone thinks they need lots of space. The truth is, you need a big amount of space only to feel safe. DropBox has been ready to expand space because it knows that the users won’t use all of it. I have 40GB free and yet, I’m only using 20% of it. The huge and expandable safety net is welcoming. Google and Microsoft should learn from this.
Clean Web Interface
The web interface was good, and then it was improved a few months back. Now it’s gorgeous. It’s clean, simple, and works brilliantly.
Web Interface - Smooth and effective
Web Interface – Smooth and effective
Right Click Sharing
This is one feature that should be in every cloud storage product. The big side reason to store things online is for backup and also for selective sharing. The ‘Get Link’ or ‘Share This Folder’ from the DropBox right click menu has been immense.
The Right Click - So Useful
The Right Click – So Useful
Integration
DropBox’s popularity and open mindedness means it became a defacto standard for sharing to and from mobile devices. This expanded the case use scenarios for DropBox and its popularity went through the roof. If you want to replace the physical hard drive, you must be made to slot into any device – and DropBox is just that.
Could Be Better
DropBox is in danger because Apple and Microsoft are closing down their platforms to be more iCloud / SkyDrive centric. I am pretty sure DropBox can work out a deal especially with Microsoft to coexist in a non conflicting manner with internal offerings. If it doesn’t, people will jump ship not because they want to but because they have to. I’d love to see DropBox working towards integrating well with Windows 8 and OSX/iOS.

Google Drive 
Google Drive: Docs on Desktop
Google Drive: Docs on Desktop
Google Drive is an effort that mirrors Chromium. As much as Chromium is a gateway to Google’s services from a specifically built laptop, Drive is your local door to Google Docs.
Easy Docs Launching
It used to be a minor pain getting to docs. I have to fire up my browser, log in, go to the docs site and then open up the folder and then the file. Now I just open my Google Drive and double click the document. It’s simple. It still launches the browser but it gets directly into the document of choice.
Web Interface - Same thing on the Desktop
Web Interface – Same thing on the Desktop
Flexibility
Google is the type of company that will catch ‘em all. You can put up your own documents and files and Google Drive will do simple syncing. There are no public links and all that but at least there is basic synchronization.
What Could Be Better
I would like to see Word, Excel and PowerPoint documents convert into Google Docs’ format when I put them in my Drive. Google Drive should instantly make a copy in GDocs format. That would make their cloud solution a hit. That would literally convert people from Office to Docs.
The Word Document should have been converted
The Word Document should have been converted
Multiple accounts support would be great as well. I have 3 Google accounts because Google has such a great exchange-esque system (Google Apps) that I host 3 of my emails on Google. All 3 are active Google accounts for varying purposes. I want them all tied in to one Drive app. Google should work on that.

SkyDrive 
SkyDrive: Recently Relevant
SkyDrive: Recently Relevant
SkyDrive was brought back to life by Microsoft’s other products. It was nothing stellar on its own but has improved with time.
Nearly Everything DropBox Is
This is a complement. You get syncing, you get a pretty good desktop and web app. You get previous versions, public links, sharing and the like. It’s nearly the gold standard DropBox has set.
Spot the Difference
Spot the Difference
Integration into Windows, Office and Phone
The biggest thing for SkyDrive, if I have not mentioned it many times already, is how well it ties into many other Microsoft products. These are products that are a must use for me. Windows and Office are definitely the big 2. The integration via Metro UI has been looking really positive so far.
Reason: Windows 8 & Office 2013
Reason: Windows 8 & Office 2013 works Beautifully with SkyDrive
Could Be Better
SkyDrive has to hit DropBox standards and exceed them if it really wants to win people over. Give me my sharing link from a right click on the Desktop. Clean up that web interface and douse some Metro on that (I think they would, the way Outlook.com is replacing Hotmail).
SkyDrive needs to play well with other apps as well. People do not want a separate drive only for Microsoft products. They want a drive they can use for everything. Microsoft has to start thinking the way of DropBox because they are an OS provider. And a good OS is one that caters broadly.

Using All Three
I have come to a point where I need to invest into SkyDrive and to some extent Google Drive (work related). Having all 3 clients running, I still tend towards DropBox more not out of habit but because of its features and execution. Maybe Windows 8 might change things but Microsoft and Google have a lot more catch up to do to match DropBox.

It is hard to tell best publisher ad network. Not simple as 1, 2, 3..... It solely depends upon your blog niche, visitors and their location. If it comes to Asian publishers, it is a big headache. I have personal experience of this in earlier times when I started blogging some two years ago. Better is to check which publisher network works best for you. It doesn't cost anything to sign up!

Before choosing any publisher network, find out their payment threshold and most important is payment option. I am giving more emphasis on payment option particularly in context in Nepal. Paypal is the payment option of almost all advertising networks but it is not available in Nepal. Check is another but it is not guaranteed whether you will receive it or not! Since it is send through ordinary mail, I have too missed several checks worth rupees 290$. 

Here is the top three ad network for Nepalese publisher. You can easily get money from them in Nepal with their easy payment option.

Google_Adsense
Google AdSense: No doubt, Google AdSense is the leader in ad networks. AdSense serves highly targeted ads. It is comparatively hard to get inside AdSense network. Google's terms and conditions are very strict among all advertising companies available. Believe me if you are honest, AdSense will always be honest with you. I am happy to work with them.
You can get payment as you earn $100 through Western Union.

Infolinks
Infolinks: I have kept this in second number for Nepali publisher. I am working with infolinks since last one year. No doubt Infolinks is best in In-Text Advertising. They are always ready to assist you in earning maximum from your sites. They claim having the most relevant in-text advertising links and the highest revenue share - guaranteed company, so they are.
You can get payment as you earn $50 through Payoneer (Don't worry you can get free Payoneer master card in Nepal).

Aol_Advertising
AOL Advertising: AOL Advertising is an advertising network group using CPM (Cost Per Million), CPC (Cost Per Click), CPA (Cost Per Action). As Infolinks their staff are very helpful. Advertising.com is a big and really well-organized ad network. I have already got payment to my bank account in Kathmandu, Nepal from them.
You can get payment as you earn $25 through Wire transfer (transferred to your bank account).

Are these publisher ad networks also in your priority list?
WhatsApp Messenger for iOS devices is now free. With this, the app now has the same subscription model as can be seen in the Android and Windows Phone versions, with the first year being free for new users and maintaining subscriptions for subsequent years costing $1 per year. However, those who have already bought the app need not worry about the subscription, since they already have a lifetime subscription to the service at no extra charge.

This move hasn't been a surprise. WhatsApp CEO Jan Koum had talked about bringing the subscription model to the iOS version of the app in an interview with Dutch journalist Alexander Klopping back in March. This is undoubtedly in an attempt to widen the potential audience for WhatsApp. For many, even the low price tag of WhatsApp (Rs 55) was too much for something they just wanted to try out. However, it is worth noting that even back when it was a paid app, it was still on the top 10 paid apps list on the iTunes App Store.
No threat to the telcoms and SMS
Now free on iOS


WhatsApp is undoubtedly an extremely popular messaging service. Just last month, the company had revealed that the messaging service had crossed the 250 million user base milestone. This gives WhatsApp a lead of 50 million users over Twitter, a service that boasted of 200 million users at last count. The four-year-old cross-platform messaging service has left the likes of Viber, Nimbuzz and WeChat behind and is now running neck-in-neck with the likes of Microsoft’s Skype and Facebook Messenger.

The service, which usually processes about 18 billion inbound and 12 billion outbound messages a day, had seen a spike in activity where it claims that it processed a whopping 27 billion inbound 17 billion outbound messages in a 24 hour period. WhatsApp did not specify the details of when the figures were collected.
A few days more and you will be able to compose your Google emails in full-screen,thanks to an update. The compose box, the way it is right now, is like the chat window on Google, only bigger. But once you’ve enabled this option, the compose box will appear at the centre of your inbox and expand to occupy your entire screen. Users have the option to either click on the expand button on the top right or select the Default to full-screen option in the more options menu on the bottom right.
cover
Compose emails in full-screen now!



Google showed off its new compose window in October last year and made it the default way to send emails in March this year. When the company newly introduced the compose box, many switched to the redesigned format and with good reason. Mails, unlike instant messaging services, tend to become a lengthy process. It becomes cumbersome when one has to keep switching between viewing older mails for reference, saving the current mail as a draft and searching for that mail from last month.

Google has ensured that controls on the new compose box while still accessible, won't come in the user's way when not needed. Also now when users add recipients to their messages, profile pictures of their contacts will show up in auto-complete, letting them be sure of sending mails to the intended recipient. Users can drag and drop the new address chips between to: cc: and bcc:. Once users are done adding recipients, the address bar collapses automatically.

In addition to the new full-screen option in Gmail, the formatting toolbar on the compose box will be on by default too. The changes will be rolled out to everyone in the next few days. In the meanwhile, tell us what you think about it in the comments section below.
To make money online is not easy as you look advertisements all over. Certainly, you have to pay something to earn something. What if you are spending your time and earning few dollars daily in return!

One of the best option could be joining paid to click sites or in short ptc sites. It really doesn't require any knowledge or training just click and earn money online.

Paid to click sites helps to make money online by viewing Ads, doing tasks, paid surveys, surfing etc. It is the most easy and reliable way to make money online. Most important these paid to click sites are free to join.

We get lots of mails mainly from Asian countries asking if there is any legit way to make money online. Latest mail was from Nepal. Mailer asked the best way to earn online from Nepal. So here is one of the option. 

Using ptc sites, you can earn money without spending a single penny!

Below are the top five highest paying ptc sites. These are also the most legit and trusted ptc sites. 

Clixsense: 

ClixSense is a legit, safe and highest paying ptc site. Clixsense is one of the oldest Paid to Click site on the internet. ClixSense has been online for 6 Years. You can earn upto $0.02 for spending 30 sec of your time on viewing sponsors' websites.

Click Rate: $0.001 – $0.02
Minimum cashout: $8
Payment processors: Paypal, Payza, L.Reserve, Checks

How much money from Clixsense?
Around $0.03 only for viewing sponsors' websites. By completing tasks and offers, few dollars can be made per day.

NeoBux:

Neobux is another legit paid to click site which has been paying money online since 5 years. Neobux is one of the most successful paid to click programs.
Click Rate: $0.001 – $0.015
Minimum cashout: $2
Payment processors: Paypal, Payza, Neteller

How much money from Neobux?Around $0.004 minimum for fixed ads plus $0.05+ micro ads. By completing micro jobs, few dollars can be made per day.

BuxP:

BuxP is another established advertising company that has been online for more than 4 years. In BuxP, you can earn money by clicking and viewing ads, watching video ads or completing offers and surveys.

Click Rate: $0.001 – $0.006
Minimum cashout: $6.99
Payment processors: Paypal, Payza

How much money from BuxP?Around $0.035 without referrals. Extra cents for completing offers and surveys.

Clicksia:

Using Clicksia, you can make money online by clicking advertisements, completing offers etc. Clicksia is a reputed company in ptc industry which has been paying for over 5 years.

Click Rate: $0.001 – $0.005
Minimum cashout: $1
Payment processors: Paypal, Payza

How much money from Clicksia?
Around $0.012 for clicking advertisements. Extra $0.10-$0.50 can be earned by completing signing up offers.

Incentria:

Incentria has been online and paying for over 5 years for viewing advertisements, completing signup offers etc. 

Click Rate: $0.001 – $0.005
Minimum cashout: $1
Payment processors: Paypal, Payza

How much money from Incentria?
Around $0.012 by viewing advertisements. Extra $0.10-$0.50 from signing up offers.

Note that more legit paid to click sites you join more you can make money online. Have you ever joined any of these paid to click sites? Your comments on these ptc sites or any online money making ideas are always welcomed!
If you are keen to show the live Nepali Fm on your blogger or personal website or If you are searching in google how to get the embedded audio code,then you have come to the right place. Today i have written the embedded code for audio so you can put in on your blogger or website. what you need to know is the source (ip address of respected fm where it has lunch or broadcast from.)

if you want to show the live fm on your website like above,below is the code for the Big Fm Pokhara. Just Copy the below code and post on your website. If you are using blogger or wordpress just add a gadgets and then select html/javascript and copy paste into that box

<object align="baseline" classid="CLSID:6BF52A52-394A-11d3-B153-00C04F79FAA6" height="63" id="Player" standby="Loading Microsoft Windows Media Player components..." type="application/x-oleobject" width="337"> <param name="uiMode" value="full">
<param name="URL" value="Link Here">
<param name="autoStart" value="true">
<param name="enableContextMenu" value="false">
<param name="playCount" value="9999">
<embed src="http://74.200.89.122:8074/" autostart="1" class="wmnbav" type="application/x-mplayer2" id="Player2" showcontrols="1" showdisplay="0" showstatusbar="1" width="337" align="baseline" height="63"></embed> </object>,/p

Click here to download BigFm Pokhara code